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The Evolution Of Cinematic Techniques In Bringing Classic Books To The Screen
David A. Cook, Professor and Director of the Film Studies Program, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Author of the book “History of Narrative Film”.
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Robert Sklar, professor of film studies at New York University. Author of the film: History of International Media and more.
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Film history, also known as film history, film history, a popular form of mass media, from the 19th century to the present.
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The illusion of movies is based on optical phenomena called visual constancy and the phi phenomenon. The first of these causes the brain to retain the images thrown on the retina for a fraction of a second after they disappear from the field of vision, and the second causes a clear movement between the images as they alternate rapidly. Together, these phenomena allow a series of still frames on a film strip to show continuous motion when projected at the appropriate speed (traditionally 16 frames per second for silent films and 24 frames per second for sound films). Before the invention of photography, various optical toys used this effect by placing successive phase patterns of moving objects on the surface of a rotating disc (phenakistoscope, 1832) or inside a rotating drum (zoetrope, 1834). Then, in 1839, French artist Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre perfected a positive photographic process called the daguerreotype, and in the same year, English scientist William Henry Fox Talbot successfully demonstrated a negative photographic process that theoretically allowed for an infinite number of images. positive publications. produced from each negative. Over the next few decades, as photography was innovated and refined, it was possible to replace the phase diagrams in early optical toys and devices with individually placed phase photographs, a practice that became widespread and popular.
However, real movies don’t exist unless you capture live action by itself and simultaneously. This entailed reducing exposure times to the hundredths of a second (and eventually one thousandths) achieved in the 1870s from the hours or more required by the new photographic processes. He also claimed to develop the technology of serial photography by the British-American photographer Edward. Muybridge in 1872-1877. At the time, Muybridge was hired by California Governor Leland Stanford, an ardent racehorse breeder, to prove that a running horse could lift all four hooves off the ground at once. The conventions of 19th-century illustration suggested otherwise, and the movement itself was too fast to see with the naked eye, so Muybridge experimented with multiple cameras to capture horses in motion in succession. Finally, in 1877, he installed a battery of 12 cameras along the Sacramento racetrack, with wires running along the track to control the curtains. As the horse trotted down the track, its hooves engaged each shutter individually, revealing a sequential photograph of the run, confirming Stanford’s belief. When Muybridge later placed these images on a spinning disc and projected them onto a screen by means of a magic lamp, they created a “motion picture” of a horse at full gallop, just as it had been in life.
French physiologist Etienne-Jules Marais took the first series of photographs with a single instrument in 1882; Again, the impulse was to analyze movements too fast to be perceived by the human eye. Murray invented a shotgun-like camera that took 12 photos per second to study the movements of birds in flight. These images were printed on a rotating glass plate (later paper roll film) and Murray later attempted to project them. Like Muybridge, May was interested in deconstructing motion rather than synthesizing it, and did not extend his experiments beyond high-speed or instant burst photography. Muybridge and Mary, in fact, conducted their work in a spirit of scientific inquiry; they expanded and developed existing technologies to investigate and analyze events beyond human perception. After that, the newcomers would return their discoveries to the normal field of human vision and use them for profit.
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In 1887, Hannibal Goodwin, an Episcopal minister in Newark, New Jersey, developed the idea of using celluloid as a base for photographic emulsions. Inventor and industrialist George Eastman, who had previously experimented with sensitive rolls of photographic paper, began producing celluloid roll film in 1889 at his factory in Rochester, New York. This event was very important for the development of cinema: serial photographs such as Murray’s chronophotography could use glass plates or paper tape, as he captured short-lived events in a relatively small number of images, but cinema inevitably found its subjects in longer, multiple images. . complex events that require thousands of images and are therefore the kind of flexible yet durable recording medium that only celluloid can provide. It left someone to combine the principles embodied in the Muybridge and Mary apparatus with celluloid strip film to achieve a viable motion picture camera.
Such a device was created by the French inventor Louis Le Prince in the late 1880s. He made several short films in Leeds, England in 1888, and the following year began using the newly invented celluloid film. He was supposed to exhibit his work in New York in 1890, but disappeared while traveling in France. The exhibit never materialized, and Le Prince’s contribution to cinema was little known for decades. Instead, William Kennedy Laurie Dixon, who worked at the Edison Company’s West Orange laboratories in New Jersey, built the first moving camera. Director’s Note Repairing and Restoring Singapore’s Coil Heritage The Origins of Singapore Stone Tools Keramat Kusu Subaraj Rajathurai’s History: The Sound of a Wild ‘Book City’ in Two Streets: A View of a Chinese Bookstore in Postwar Singapore. Folk Gods of Singapore S. : Thaipusam and Murugan Worship with Their Voices in Singapore: Preparing for War in Singapore New Books on Singapore History
(1955). These are just a few of the canonical works of world cinematographers that have been digitally restored in the last 10 years.
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(1954, Usmar Ismail). This project was a milestone in the recovery of Southeast Asian films with international support. In the following years, movies will be liked
These films are made using cellulose acetate-based film, a clear plastic film used by photographers and filmmakers. The recorded materials were processed as picture and sound negatives, which made it possible to make copies of 35 mm theatrical prints for cinemas.
However, the film deteriorates over time. The condition of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate materials is highly dependent on temperature and relative humidity. Storage of film materials at room temperature or warmer and with high humidity will inevitably cause chemical degradation of the base and emulsion of the film material.
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In the tropical climate of Southeast Asia, degradation of materials, resulting in loss of color, appearance and sound, can easily occur through a lethal combination of moisture and heat. Problems such as “vinegar syndrome” cause films to become brittle, shrink, and produce a sour odor. In addition, a warm environment is a perfect breeding ground for mold, mildew and fungus. Improper handling and transportation of materials also resulted in mechanical damage such as torn joints and broken holes.
For films in poor condition and at risk of total loss due to decay, restoration is the most urgent film conservation intervention.
Although “preserved” and “restored” are often used interchangeably when talking about reissued and restored classic films, the terms are not synonymous. Veteran film archivist Ray Edmondson describes preservation as “the practices and procedures necessary to ensure continued access with minimal loss of quality to the visual or audio content or other essential attributes of films.” This includes control, processing, storage media and methods.”
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Film restoration, on the other hand, is a highly specialized multi-step process that involves digitizing, duplicating, and reconstructing a specific version of a film by using digital restoration tools and combining preserved original materials to detect and thoroughly repair film damage and wear. suffered from the source material and brought the appearance of the film closer to what it was when it was first made.”
In Singapore, the restoration of old films was led by the Asian Film Archive, a subsidiary of National Film.
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